|In search of stability: Europe, 1870-1989|
The lecture will cover the political, institutional and economic history of Europe from the late 19th century. It will aim at explaining the European integration process as an answer to the challenges that the continent has had to confront in the last 150 years.
The first part of the lecture (3 hours) will deal with European politics and political institutions from the “first” German unification in 1871 up until the end of the Cold War settlement. It will try to demonstrate how the internal evolution of the most relevant European countries has been conditioned by, and has in its turn conditioned, both the intra-European international settlements and the position of the continent in the world.
The second part of the lecture (2 hours) is a discussion of the main sources and outcomes of Europe’s economic growth from the late 19th century. It will cover:
a) the impressive results and the build-up of disequilibria during the “first globalization”,
b) the instability and economic collapse during the “second thirty years war”,
c) the “miracles” of the Golden Age and the new disequilibria of the 1970s, d) the “big bang” of the “second globalization”, and
e) the illusion of a “great moderation” up to the double-dip Great Recession of 2008-13.
|An introduction to European institutions|
|Syllabus: The lecture will provide a historical, juridical and economic introduction to EU institutions. The first part of the lecture (3 hours) will chart the history of European integration from the European Coal and Steel Community up until the Maastricht treaty, dealing with the failed European Defense Community, the Treaties of Rome, the Gaullist challenge, the first enlargements, the economic and monetary troubles and the institutional evolution of the 1970s, the Single European Act. The second part of the lecture (2 hours) will present the more recent developments of the EU Institutional System; so-called ‘intergovernmentalism’ and ‘supranationalism’; the principles of institutional balance and of loyal cooperation between the Institutions, and between the Member States and the Institutions. The third part of the lecture (2 hours) will introduce the main elements of the European Economic Governance and of its Institutions. The history and the legacy of the recent crisis will be considered under the perspective of building a new system of economic and political governance. The dilemma between further centralisation of sovereignty or its wind-back to national competences will be considered.|
|Convergences and divergences in Europe|
The lecture will consider the European institutions in their interaction with the national institutions of the member states, and in their effort to cope with the diversity of the Old Continent.
The first part of the lecture (2 hours) is centered on the evolution of the economic imbalances in the Euro area, as it is indicated mainly by the negative or positive surpluses in the current accounts. The lesson aims at explaining the following points:
a) The conditions which allowed the reproduction and strengthening of the negative imbalances in various European countries before the international financial crisis;
b) The new factors that made these imbalances unbearable after the financial crisis;
c) The main features of the related adjustment processes;
d) A criticism towards the current situation. The second part of the lecture (2 hours) will deal with the process of europeanization of the institutions of the member states – that is, how the institutions of the states that belong to the European Union have been transformed by the integration process. The third part of the lecture (3 hours) will deal with the most relevant institutions of the EU: the Council; the Parliament and the Commission. It will consider how these institutions are composed; what are their role and functions; what is their internal organization; what are the rules that govern their functioning; how they take decisions.
|European institutions and their policies|
|Syllabus: The lecture aims at completing the overall presentation of the EU institutions and at presenting one instance of specific public policy enacted by them. The first part of the lecture (3 hours) will present the European jurisdictions (i.e. the Court of Justice, the General Court and the Staff Specialized Court) the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors and the other EU Organisms. The second part of the lecture (2 hours) will deal with the competition policy of the EU: the protection of free competition within the EU; the so-called antitrust rules; the rules on the State aids to the undertakings; the rules concerning the public services and the public owned companies.|
|On being European: citizenship, rights, social cohesion, welfare and well-being in the EU|
|Syllabus: EU citizenship: rights and duties. The European area of freedom, security and justice. The free movement of people. The EU judicial cooperation in civil and criminal law matters. The police cooperation within the EU. The European policies on EU external border checks, notably concerning visa, asylum and immigration. The concept of sustainable development as a pillar of the EU economic model. The EU social policy: in particular, the actions to fight unemployment and to ensure social and economic cohesion among European regions; notably, the EU “structural funds”. The European policy to protect the environment and to face the global climate change. The EU initiatives to preserve the European heritage and to develop a more integrated European culture and education.|
|The EU and its borders/a common Foreign and Security Policy (Conference + Lecture)|
|Syllabus: The first part of the module will concentrate on enlargements. It will pay great attention to conditionality and the processes of Europeanization: rather than focus on how the Union was changed by the enlargements (an aspect that is dealt with in other modules), it will focus on how candidates first, and new members afterwards, were transformed by accession. The second part of the module will confront the “external action” of the EU and European countries. It will focus in particular on the two areas that are most relevant at the moment: Russia and the Ukrainian crisis; the Mediterranean, the Arab Spring and Lybia.|
|Building a single European market: competition, trade, and customs|
|Syllabus: The EU as a free trade area: the Single European Market and its four freedoms: free movement for goods, services, capitals and workers. The rules ensuring free competition within the EU: antitrust enforcement and the provisions concerning public intervention in the market economy. The guarantee of public services of general economic interest and the European social model. The EU as a customs union. The Common Commercial Policy of the EU relating to multilateral and bilateral international trade agreements.|
|Energy and Climate Change Strategy in Europe|
|Syllabus: In 2008, the Treaty of Lisbon launched new climate and energy policies in the European Union with the aim of significantly decreasing CO2 emissions, while increasing the security of the supply of energy in the Union, at reasonable costs in order to maintain competitiveness. This led to adopt the “Energy Package” with three targets, known as the "20-20-20" targets, for 2020: a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels; raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20%; a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. Since then, climate policy and energy security policy have been closely linked in the EU, as developed in the European Energy Roadmap 2050. The global context for energy and climate policies has changed since these targets were adopted in 2008. The economic crisis has prompted concerns about the impact of energy prices on households and on industrial competitiveness. The shale gas revolution, made possible by hydraulic fracturing technology, has helped the US reduce its energy imports and brought down energy prices. Global greenhouse gases continue to rise while an international climate agreement is being negotiated. A new strategy is being defined in the EU. Heads of State and Government have agreed the headline targets and the architecture for the EU framework on climate and energy for 2030. The agreement includes a cut in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, an EU-wide binding target for renewable energy of at least 27% and an indicative energy efficiency target of at least 27%. This session will be dedicated to the presentation and analysis of the European strategy. We will explain why the two issues, climate change and energy, are intertwined and a focus will be made on the potential impact of the European strategy on its economic growth over the long-term.|